Project D12-N (2014-2018)

Overview of the project D12 of the CRC 732

Sense Discrimination and Regular Meaning Shifts of German Particle Verbs

Principal Investigator: Sabine Schulte im Walde
Researchers: Maximilian Köper, Sylvia Springorum

Associated researchers:Eleri Aedmaa, Jeremy Barnes, Sai Abishek Bhaskar, Evangelia Kiagia
Daniela Naumann, Kim-Anh Nguyen, Dominik Schlechtweg

Student researchers:Alla Abrosimova, Reem Alatrash, Delia Alf, Alexander Frey, Anna Hätty, David Helbig, Glorianna Jagfeld, Ingrid Kasimir, Nana Khvtisavrishvili, Florian Lux, Monique Marquez, Daniela Naumann, Alisa NohaAlexandra Schweins, Sabrina Tistl

The goal of D12 is to identify regular meaning shifts of German particle verbs (PVs) with prepositional particles, such as abstottern, aufbrausen, nachweinen. Our D12 hypothesis of meaning shifts assumes that there are regular mechanisms in meaning shifts from one domain to another when a base verb (BV) is combined with a particle, and that these shifts apply across a semantically coherent set of verbs. For example, the syntactically similar BVs brummen 'hum' and donnern 'rumble' both describe a displeasing loud sound. Combined with the particle auf, they result in near-synonyms roughly meaning 'forcefully assigning a task' (in one of their senses).

As typically not all senses of a PV undergo meaning shifts (for example, there are at least two senses of aufsprudeln, of which one is literal (meaning 'bubble up'), and one results from a regular meaning shift ('become angry'; shared with aufbrausen and aufkochen), a major prerequisite to identify such regular meaning shifts is sense discrimination. The two major parts of D12 therefore comprise

  1. sense discrimination for particle verbs, particles and simplex verbs (including the base verbs with regard to the chosen particle verbs); and
  2. identification of regular meaning shifts and the conditions that trigger the meaning shifts.

Concerning (i), our work is interdisciplinary, combining (A) theoretical considerations about salient meaning components with (B) empirical evidence from psycholinguistic experiments and (C) computational models with a strong focus on distributional information and soft clustering methods to represent and disambiguate contextual ambiguity. Concerning (ii), we aim to incorporate the empirical sense properties into computational models that identify regular polysemy regarding PV-BV meaning shifts via analogy. Importantly, we are not only interested in the identification of the meaning shifts per se, but in addition we aim to determine the conditions of the meaning shifts, i.e. the meaning components of the particle verbs and their constituents that trigger the meaning shifts, such as subcategorisation behaviour at the syntax-semantics interface; contextual indicators of abstract vs. concrete contexts; domain information; aspect; etc. As a side-product of meaning shift identification, we will address compositionality: one type of meaning shift is a non-shift with strong PV-BV overlap and a prototypical particle meaning.

Publications

  • Schlechtweg, D., Schulte im Walde, S., 2018. Distribution-based Prediction of the Degree of Grammaticalization for German Prepositions. Talk at the 12th Evolution of Language International Conference (EVOLANG XII). Torun, Poland, April 17. [abstract/resource]
  • Frassinelli, D., Abrosimova, A., Springorum, S., Schulte im Walde, S., 2017. Meaning (Mis-)Match in the Directionality of German Particle Verbs. Talk at "What is a Verb?" An International Conference on the Cross-Linguistic Comparison in Indo-Germanic and Semitic Languages (CoGS). Konstanz, Germany, July 26-28.
  • Springorum, S., 2017. Conceptual Perspectives on German Particle Verbs. Talk at "What is a Verb?" An International Conference on the Cross-Linguistic Comparison in Indo-Germanic and Semitic Languages (CoGS). Konstanz, Germany, July 26-28.
  • Schulte im Walde, S., 2017. Kognitive und Distributionelle Perspektiven auf deutsche Partikelverben. Invited Talk. 53. Jahrestagung des Instituts für Deutsche Sprache: Wortschätze: Dynamik, Muster, Komplexität. Kongresszentrum Rosengarten, Mannheim, March 15.
  • Schulte im Walde, S., 2017. Distributional Models of Compositionality: German Noun Compounds and Particle Verbs. Invited Talk. Universität Düsseldorf, Computational Linguistics Research Colloquium. January 26.
  • Schulte im Walde, S., 2017. Distributional Models of Compositionality: German Noun Compounds and Particle Verbs. Invited Talk. Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Computerlinguistik. January 17.
  • Schulte im Walde, S., 2016. Distributional Approaches to Semantic Relatedness. Invited Talk. Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Sprachwissenschaftliches Institut. December 6.
  • Springorum, S., Schulte im Walde, S., 2016. Aiming with Arrows at Particles. Towards a Conceptual Analysis of German Particle Verbs. Talk at "Cognitive Structures: Linguistic, Philosophical and Psychological Perspectives (CoSt)". Düsseldorf, Germany, September 15-17. [abstract]
  • Schulte im Walde, S., 2015. Potential and Limits of Distributional Approaches to Semantic Relatedness. Invited Talk. Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Korpuslinguistik. December 17.
  • Schulte im Walde, S., 2015. Experiential Data and Distributional Models of German Particle Verbs. Invited Talk. Universität Zürich, Institut für Computerlinguistik, Switzerland. May 12.
  • Springorum, S., 2014. (Re-)constructing German Verb Particle Meanings for Familiar and Novel Verbs. Talk at "The Stuff Words are Made of": An International Conference on the Cross-linguistic Comparison of Indo-Germanic and Semitic Languages (CoGS). Konstanz, Germany, July 21-23. [abstract]
  • Bräuninger, M., Schulte im Walde, S., Weller-Di Marco, M., 2018. Improving SMT-based Synonym Extraction across Word Classes by Distributional Reranking of Synonyms and Hypernyms. DGfS-CL Poster Session 2018 at the Annual Meeting of the DGfS, Universität Stuttgart, March 7-9. [abstract/poster]
  • Cap, F., Ehren, R., Köper, M., Lichte, T., Schulte im Walde, S., Zinsmeister, H., 2018. VerbCompoCor: A German Corpus with Compositionality Judgements for Verb-Dependent Pairs. DGfS-CL Poster Session 2018 at the Annual Meeting of the DGfS, Universität Stuttgart, March 7-9. [abstract/poster]
  • Naumann, D., Frassinelli, D., Schulte im Walde, S., 2018. A Contextual Analysis of Concrete and Abstract Words. DGfS-CL Poster Session 2018 at the Annual Meeting of the DGfS, Universität Stuttgart, March 7-9. [abstract/poster]
  • Schlechtweg, D., Eckmann, S., Santus, E., Schulte im Walde, S., Hole, D., 2018. German in Flux: Detecting Metaphoric Change via Word Entropy. DGfS-CL Poster Session 2018 at the Annual Meeting of the DGfS, Universität Stuttgart, March 7-9. [abstract/poster]
  • Martin, F., Falk, I., Köper, M., Springorum, S., Schulte im Walde, S., Stein, A., 2018. Cross-Linguistic Interplay of Lexical Aspect and (Non-)Literalness. International Conference Linguistic Evidence 2018: Experimental Data drives Linguistic Theory, Biannual Meeting hosted by the SFB 833 The Construction of Meaning, Universität Tübingen, February 15-17. [abstract/poster]
  • Schlechtweg, D., Schulte im Walde, S., 2017. Evaluation of Computational Models of Semantic Change: An Annotation of Semantic Change based on Usage Similarity. Formal Diachronic Semantics 2, Saarbrücken, Germany, November 20-21. [abstract/poster]
  • Schlechtweg, D., Eckmann, S., Santus, E., Schulte im Walde, S., Hole, D., 2017. German in Flux: Detecting Metaphoric Change via Word Entropy. 2nd International Summer School on Data Science, Split, Croatia, September 25-29. [poster]
  • Frassinelli, D., Naumann, D., Schulte im Walde, S., 2017. Contextual Characteristics of Concrete and Abstract Words. 23rd Conference on Architectures and Mechanisms of Language Processing (AMLaP), Lancaster, UK, September 7-9. [abstract/poster]
  • Frassinelli, D., Abrosimova, A., Springorum, S., Schulte im Walde, S., 2017. Meaning (Mis-)Match in the Directionality of German Particle Verbs. 30th Annual CUNY Conference on Human Sentence Processing, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA, March 30-April 1. [abstract/poster]
  • Frassinelli, D., Abrosimova, A., Springorum, S., Kiagia, E., Schulte im Walde, S., 2016. Spatial Meaning Shifts in German Particle Verbs with "auf" and "an". Abstract Concepts International Symposium 2016: Structure, Processing and Modeling, Universiteit van Amsterdam, November 18. [abstract/poster]
  • Schulte im Walde, S., Köper, M., 2016. The Role of Ambiguity and Abstractness in Multi-Modal Models of German Noun Compounds and Particle Verbs. Abstract Concepts International Symposium 2016: Structure, Processing and Modeling, Universiteit van Amsterdam, November 18. [abstract/poster]
  • Springorum, S., Schulte im Walde, S., 2016. Contextual Abstraction of Particle Meaning in German Particle Verbs. Abstract Concepts International Symposium 2016: Structure, Processing and Modeling, Universiteit van Amsterdam, November 18. [abstract/poster]
  • Khvtisavrishvili, N., Bott, S., Schulte im Walde, S., 2015. A Corpus-based Study on the Syntactic Behaviour of German Particle Verbs. DGfS-CL Poster Session at the Annual Meeting of the DGfS, Universität Leipzig, March 4-6. [abstract/poster]
  • Köper, M., Zaiß, M., Han, Q., Koch, S., Schulte im Walde, S., 2016. Visualisation and Exploration of High-Dimensional Distributional Features in Lexical Semantic Classification. In: Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC). Portoroz, Slovenia. [pdf/poster/bib]
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